Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
It really is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy.
Kinds of transducer:
There are 2 kinds of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is really a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it generates an electric charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism can be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based upon piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly increases the amplitude while decreasing the input power at the same time, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually referred to as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or even to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when leading edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators could work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor must give you the controller the correct information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the right amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. Based on Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it is going to cause. In case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system using a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal from the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out and the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is often utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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