Cannabis may be ingested in a number of ways, but the most famous route of administration continues to be via smoking or inhaling the drug. Cannabis goods are usually smoked (with or without tobacco) through a pipe or in the form of a cigarette (also known as a ‘joint’). The pipes come in a wide array of sizes and forms but usually have long stems or incorporate a ‘hookah-type’ water filtration system (i.e., water pipe) and are often known as a ‘bong’. When a water pipe is used, cannabis smoke is cooled by the water in an effort to reduce its harshness and temperature, which can scald the throat (Booth, 2003).
Little research has been conducted in to the specific harms connected with smoking cannabis by way of a water pipe or bong. Few studies examining cannabis use, apart from those concerning the medical utilization of the drug, have differentiated involving the various strategies for delivery (i.e., smoking via joints or water pipes, ingesting in food) and little is famous regarding distinct administration routes, their relationship to drug use patterns, and related harms.
In recent years, there has been a resurgence in popularity in using hookahs or ‘shisha’ to Smoketools, particularly flavoured tobacco products. The traditional Middle Eastern water pipe is currently widely smoked around the globe, particularly by students and young adults. Due to the utilization of healthy-sounding fruit flavouring and also the social way it will always be used (i.e., in restaurants and cafes), it is usually viewed as a ‘safer’ alternative to cigarettes. Due to this recent popularity, we have seen an escalating quantity of research conducted examining the harms associated with the use of the shisha.
This bulletin will examine the foundation in the water pipe and what we should understand about the harms related to smoking cannabis using a bong, particularly in comparison to other routes of administration. As the research is limited in this field, an examination of the current evidence regarding the harms connected with water pipe tobacco smoking is included together with consideration of how this information may be used in cannabis prevention activities.
Origins of the water pipe – Using water in a smoking apparatus is ancient, with Persian hookahs or ‘narghiles’ illustrative types of early smoking water pipes (Erickson, Jarvie & Miller, 1977). In their 1997 US patent for the ‘improved smoking water pipe or bong’, the authors describe the process as follows – “… smoke from the substance being combusted is directed via a tube discharging underneath the surface water in a potlike container before passing therefrom through a second tube towards the mouth from the smoker.”
In which the water pipe actually originated is unclear, while there is increasing evidence to suggest that bongs were first used to smoke cannabis in Africa. Based on the archaeological evidence available during writing, Phillips (1983) hypothesised that cannabis was smoked in water pipes in eastern and southern Africa before the introduction of tobacco. He believed that the invention in Ethiopia of water pipe bowls, “definitely linked to the smoking of cannabis”, tends bqlsqo confirm speculation of your African origin of the water pipe. Others believe they originated in China or Persia, but in these instances the instruments were believed to be utilized to smoke tobacco.
The phrase ‘bong’ is surely an adaptation in the Thai word baung, which describes a cylindrical pipe or tube cut from bamboo. One of the earliest recorded uses in the word in the West is in the McFarland Thai-English Dictionary, published in 1944, which describes one of the meanings of ‘bong’ within the Thai language as, “a bamboo water pipe for smoking kancha, tree, hashish, or the hemp-plant.” Erickson and colleagues (1977) believe that it must be this version that has probably influenced the design of the current devices that add a “general cylindrical tubular construction”, with tubes of plastic as well as other modern materials replacing the hollow bamboo stem that was used before. Their description of methods this type of water pipe works is as follows:
“The oriental bong, further, provides means for using atmospheric air to dilute the smoke before inhalation, along with provided oxygen for your combustion producing the smoke. Thus, an air admitting orifice continues to be provided venting the smoke chamber formed within the bamboo stem above the water towards the bottom of the stem. The orifice is finger controllable, so that air may on the desire in the smoker be either excluded or admitted straight to the smoke chamber to be able to dilute the smoke therein.”
A bong utilized to smoke cannabis is comparable to a traditional hookah within both construction and function, except it is usually smaller and a lot more portable. The hole within the stem described above, sometimes called the ‘carburator’, ‘shotty’ or simply ‘hole’, is generally kept covered during the smoking process, then opened to permit the smoke to be drawn to the respiratory system in an effort to maximise the impact.